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OLNOYOL JO

ALISHAAINA

UNIV. OF

3 i

CATALOGUE

OF

PULMONATA

OR

AIR-BREATHING MOLLUSCA

IN THE COLLECTION

OF THE

BRITISH MUSEUM.

PART I.

LONDON: PRINTED BY ORDER OF THE TRUSTEES. 1855.

FEB 12 970

PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS, RED LION COURT, FLEET STREET.

PREFACE.

THE principal object of the present Catalogue is to give a complete List of the Free Air-Breathing Mollusca (Mol- lusca Pulmonata), with descriptions of all the genera and species known to exist, indicating at the same time, by a B.M. in the margin, those contained in the British

Museum.

The descriptions of the species of Shells belonging to these animals are by Dr. Louis Preirrer of Cassei, so well known for his attention to the Shells of Terrestrial Mollusca. The account of the animals and their arrange- ment has been brought up to the present state of the

science.

JOHN EDWARD GRAY.

British Museum, 29 March, 1855.

Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2008 with funding from Microsoft Corporation

http://www.archive.org/details/catalogueofpulmo01 brituoft

CATALOGUE

OF

PULMONATA.

Order V. PULMONATA.

Respiring free air in a closed chamber lined with pulmonic vessels, usually placed on the front of the back of the animal and covered by the shell, having an opening closed by a valve on the side. Animal hermaphrodite with reciprocal impregnation. The larva shell-bearing, shaped like the parent, and without any cephalic fins when first hatched: they are almost universally with- out any operculum. The teeth are numerous, similar, subequal, placed in many cross series on the lingual membrane.

Pulmonata (Les Pulmones), Cuvier, Rég. Anim. ii. 401, 1817.

Milne-Edw. Ann. Sci. Nat. 1848, ix. 112; Wiegmann Arch. 1849, 85.

Philippi, Handb. Conch. 235. Latr. Fam. Nat. 1825. Lovén, Moll. Suec.

Ccelopnoa seu Celopnoa, Schweiger, Naturg. 738, 1820. Eichwald, Zool. Spec.

Pulmobranches, Blainv.’ Bull. Soc. Philom. 1814, 178; 1816, 122; Organ. Anim. i. t. 8, 1822.

Pulmobranchia, Goldfuss, Handb. Zool. 656, 1820.

Pulmonata inoperculata, Férussac, Tab. Syst. 31, 1821. Rang, Man. 149, 1829.

Adelopneumona, Gray, Lond. Med. Repos. 182).

2 PULMONATA.

Pneumonea, Hartmann in Sturm Fauna, vi. 33, 1821. Pulmobranchiata, Gray, Ann. Philos. viii. 107, 1824.

Blainville, Dict. Sci. Nat. xliv. 98, 1826.

Deshayes, Ency. Méth. ui. t. —, 1830.

D’ Orbigny, Moll. Cuba, i. 139, 1841.

Reeve, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1841, 76. Pulmonobranchiata, Sow. Man. 1842. Pulmonibranchiata, Agassiz, Index, 1847.

Pulmonea, Latr. Fam. Nat. 1825.

Adelobranchia, Risso, Eur. Mérid. iv. 54, 1826. Ceelopneumonata inoperculata, Menke, Syn. ed. 2 Ccelopneumonata gymnostoma, Menke, Syn. 7, 1828. Pulmonifera, Guilding, Zool. Journ. 11. 440, 1828.

Fleming, Brit. Anim. 225, 255, 273, 1828. Pulmonacea, C. Pfeiffer, Naturg. Moll. 1. 1. 6, 1828. Pulmonaria, Griffith in Cuvier A. K. xii. 26, 1834. Colimacea, Reeve, Conch. Syst. 11. 64.

G. B. Sow. Manual, 1839, ed. 2. 112, 1842. Pneumonica, Verloren, Organ. Generat. 1836. Pneumobranchia inoperculata, Gray.

Pneumoneata, Hartmann, Syst. 1840. Ceelopnoa gymnostoma, Menke, Syn. ed. 2. 13, 1830.

L. Pfeiffer.

Pneumobranchiata, Gray, Turton’s Man. ed. 2.77, 1840; Syn. Brit. Mus. 1840; 1842, 90. Pneumobranchia, Lamk. Hist. A. s. V. vi. 292, 1819.

Gray, Syn. B.M. 1840.

Pneumobranchiata, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1847, 169, in Mrs. Gray’s Fig. Moll. iv. 111, 1850. Saceobranchia, Leach, Brit. Moll. 12, 44, 1852.

Synopsis OF FAMILIES.

I, GEOPHILA. Eyes at the apex of an elongated cylindrical peduncle. Tentacles cylindrical, shorter and lower down than the eye-peduncles, sometimes very small or wanting. Operculum none. Terrestrial.

A. Head, eye-peduncles and tentacles retractile under the skin. a. Mantle covering the head. Tentacles in the front of the mantle.

1. JANELLID&. Mantle covering the entire back. Tentacles two.

PULMONATA, 3

b. Front of body, head and tentacles distinct from and retractile into the mantle.

* Young with an operculum, at length deciduous, and protected by an external shell which afterwards becomes hidden in the shield-like mantle of the adult.

2. CRYPTELLADZ.

“** Young and adult without any operculum. 3. TESTACELLIDZ&. Foot without any subcandal gland. Teeth

numerous, slender, conical, distant (fig. 1). Jaws none. Body and shell spiral, subcaudal.

Fig. 1.—Teeth of Testacellus.

SRW SNA

SO SSS Saath Vv DSN Wel a :

4. ARIoNID#. Foot with a distinct gland rather above the tip. Teeth numerous, four-sided, close together on the lingual membrane. Jaw horny, distinct.

5. Hexicip#. Foot tapering behind, without any subcaudal gland. Teeth numerous, four-sided, close together on the lingual band (fig. 2). Jaw horny, distinct. Body and shell subcentral, dorsal.

Fig. 2.—Teeth of Achatina fulica.

ita

In these figures, c represents the central, 7 the lateral, and u the exterior lateral teeth.

B2

4 PULMONATA. B. Head, eye-peduncles and tentacles simply contractile.

6. VERONICELLIDH. Body elongate. Teeth numerous, four- sided, close on the lingual membrane.

7. OncHIDIAD&. Body ovate. Teeth numerous, four-sided, close on the lingual membrane *.

I]. LIMNOPHILA. Eyes sessile. Tentacles two, subcylindrical or flattened, simply contractile. Operculum none.

8. AuricULID&. Eyes on the nape at the imner side of the base of the subcylindrical tentacles. Teeth like Helicide

(fig. 3). Fig. 3.—Teeth of Auricula.

PPI py yy ssSQuTM ARN wy yy PIES SN rank ‘wun ih i, 2 SS << Se eM AneL eran meneen” XX wit = . 2 =

u if e a ie

9. LyMNEAD#. Eyes on the hinder side of the base of the flat- tened or filiform tentacles. Teeth like Helicide.

III. THALASSOPHILA. yes sessile, on the front part of the frontal disk formed by the expanded tentacles. Head pro- duced. Lingual membrane very broad.

10. StpHONARIAD#. Shell conic. Operculum none. Teeth like Helicide (fig. 4).

Fig. 4.—Teeth of Siphonaria.

ag CED RRR ee Y hati plnbintaeal

* The teeth described as those of Peronia Mauritiana, in the Ann. of Nat. Hist., Noy. 1853, were those of Testacellus. See Ann. and Mag. N. H. Jan. 1854.

PULMONATA. y)

11. AMpHIBOLID#&. Shell spiral. Mouth oblong. Operculum spiral, horny. Teeth like Helicide (fig.5). Lingual mem- brane very broad.

Fig. 5.—Teeth of Amphibola.

RE GRLECERR TR obigke bis igh

I. GEOPHILA. Eyes at the apex of an elongated cylindrical peduncie. Tentacles cylindrical, shorter and lower down than the eye-peduncles, sometimes very small or wanting. Operculum none, except Cryptella? Terrestrial.

Geophila (Les Geophiles), Férussac, Tab. Syst. 3. 18, 1821. Hartmann in Sturm Fauna, 33, 1821. Gray, Mrs. Gray’s Moll. iv. 111.

Geocochlides, Latr. Fam. Nat. 1825.

Geophile, Menke, Syn. 7, 1828.

Terricola, Fleming, Brit. Anim. 225, 1828.

Geochares, De Crist. et Jans. Cat. 1. 1832.

Terrestrial Inoperculata, Gray, Turton’s Manual, 101, 103, 1840.

A. Head, eye-peduncles and tentacles retractile under the skin.

a. Mantle covering the head. Tentacles in the front of the mantle.

Fam. 1. JANELLIDA.

Tentacles two, retractile, placed on the front edge of the mantle over the head. Body attached the whole length to the back of the foot, rather swollen on the hinder part of the middle of the back. Mantle thin, covering the whole of the back, and separated from the foot by a broad lateral groove, with three converging grooves in front above, the lateral one to the hinder side of the tentacles and forked beneath, the central medial, and extending along the centre of the back, giving off branches on each side, to the edge of the mantle. Aperture of respiration cir- cular,small, on the front of the back on the right side of the central groove. Aperture of reproduction on the edge of the mantle on the right side, under the aperture of respiration. Foot narrow, in three bands, crenated on the edge.

Shell none.

6 PULMONATA.

1, JANELLA. The only genus of the family.

Janella, Gray, in Mrs. Gray’s Figures of Mollusca, iv. 112 ; Ann. & Mag. N. H. Dec. 1853. Philippi, Handb. Conch. 237. Limax, sp., Quoy § Gaimard, Voy. Astrolabe.

1. JANELLA ANTIPODARUM. B.M.

Body (in spirits) ovate lanceolate, back convex, dark brown. Janella antipodarum, Gray, Ann. § Mag. N. H. Dee. 1853. Hab. New Zealand. A single specimen.

Body elongate, convex ; back rounded ; tail not keeled, taper- ing, acute behind, without any subcaudal gland. Mantle cover- ing the whole of the back, with a slightly raised lateral margin, leaving a rather broad space between it and the edge of the foot, thin, small, with a longitudmal groove along the centre of the back extending the whole length of the animal, and giving out branches from each side which diverge backward to the edge; in front, over the head, there is given out a short, straight, diverging branch on each side to the hinder base of the tentacles, thea forked, and the two branches continued on the under edge of the mantle to the corner of the mouth; the tentacles two, arising from the front just within the edge of the mantle, and quite re- tractile like those of the Slugs. Aperture of respiration is a very small foramen, with a raised edge on the right side and close to the central groove on the back, just above the aperture of re- production. Mouth inferior, at the end of the foot, with three tubercles in front, which are formed by the continuation of the grooves on the front of the mantle. Aperture for reproductive organs on the front part of the edge of the right side of the mantle, about one-fourth the entire length from the head.

The foot narrow, divided into three indistinctly-marked lon- gitudinal bands, the middle band rather the widest, the lateral bands with rather distant cross grooves, most distinct on the outer edge and with shorter marginal grooves between them, giving the edge of the foot a crenated appearance ; the end of the body is suddenly more slender, with a prominence on the back just before this sudden alternation, as if the mass of the viscera were confined to the first two-thirds of the body ; but this may be caused by the contraction of the animal from being in spirits.

Shell none, or at least there is no appearance of any through the skin.

Length three-fourths of an inch.

a |

PULMONATA.

2. JANELLA BITENTACULATA.

Depressed, yellowish, black spotted.

Limax bitentaculatus, Quoy § Gaimard, Voy. Astrol.t. .f. . Janella (bitentaculatus), Gray in Mrs. Gray’s Fig. Moll. iv. 112, 1850. Mrs. Gray, Fig. Moll.t. 180. f. 15. Philippi, Man. Conch. 239.

Hab. New Zealand, Tasman’s Bay, on leaves.

“Head distinct, mouth oval ; tentacles rather short, clubbed at the end; eyes very small, terminal. Back with a deep longitu- dinal groove extending the whole length, commencing from the head, divided rather to the left to surround the pulmonary aper- ture, which is placed on the back, and with oblique striz di- verging from each side of this groove. Foot scarcely distinct from the rest of the body, yellowish white; the back is dirty yellow, with pale brown spots. It has no appearance of any shield containig a horny shell.” —Quoy.

May be the same as the former.

b. Front of body, head and tentacles distinct from and retractile into the mantle. i

Fam. 2. CRYPTELLAD.

Animal when first hatched enclosed in a spiral shell, and fur- nished with an operculum which eventually falls off, and the shell is at length hidden in the substance of the mantle. Subcaudal gland ? Teeth 2

1. CRYPTELLA.

Body elongate, compressed, rather high, gibbous above. Head truncate; tail keeled, acute, short. Mantle shield-shaped, co- vering half the body, free in front; hinder part covering the front of the shell. Opening for respiration on the right side of the mantle, under the hinder part of the shell; anus rather in front of the mantle; orifice for generation behind the small tentacles. Foot slender.

Shell spathulate, oblong, depressed, transversely striated, rather thick, brittle; front part white, covered with the mantle ; hinder exserted like a small boss, green, shining, with a hidden spire.

8 PULMONATA.

Cryptella (canariensis), Webb & Berthelot, Ann. Sci. Nat. 1833, xxvill,, in Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1847, 170. n. 442. Guérin, Mag. Zool. t. 36. Troschel, Wiegm. Arch. 1836, uu. 210. Desh. in Lamk. Hist. vii. 712. Cryptellus, D’Orb. Moll. Cuba, i. 237. Parmacella (ambigua, sp.), Férussac, Hist. Moll. Sow. Gen. Shells, xiii. t. 103. Philippi, Handb. 240. Testacella, sp. (ambiguus), Férussac, Moll. Terr. 9. 6. t. 8. f. 4.

]. CRYPTELLA AMBIGUA. B.M.

Nucleus of the shell very thick, solid, covered with a green polished periostraca, with only half a whorl exposed; the rest of the shell thick, white, covered with the mantle of the adult animal.

Testacellus ambiguus, Férussac, Tab. Syst. 27; Hist. Moll. 1. Dont O.1.4 5 tO Dpto: Parmacella calyculata, Sow. Gen. Shells, xui. t. 103, 1823. Parmacella ambigua, Philippi, Handb. 240. Cryptella canariensis, Webb 8 Berth. Ann. Sci. Nat. 1833, xxvui. Cryptella ambigua, D’Orb. Hist. Nat. Canar. 50. t. 1. f. 1-12. Gray, Fig. Moll. iv. 113. t. 204. f. 1, t. 283. f. 5.

Hab. Canary Islands.

The Cryptelle leave their egg covered with a shell furnished with an operculum. The animal when born is entirely contained in the young shell, on the edge of which is afterwards developed the second concretion. They are condemned to carry during the rest of their life the envelope that served them for a cradle, al- though in enlarging this part of the shell, they gradually fill up the cavity which formerly contained the body.

The operculum is said to be formed a little before the animal leaves its egg; it is horny, thin, encrusted on the surface, or- bicular beneath, conical and swollen above, like that (an epi- phragm) of Helix naticoides; its colour is dark brown; as the animal increases in size, it gradually leaves its shell; its tail first appears too large to enter the shell, but we have not been able to fix precisely the time when it throws off its operculum.

The animal commences to elongate externally, at the same time that the edge of the shell enlarges into the shape of a disk to cover the most important viscera, the protruding body aug- menting by degrees under the mantle until the animal acquires the adult form.—Webb & Berthelot, 51.

Is it a true operculum? The authors compare it with the epi- phragm of Helix naticoides.

-PULMONATA. 9

Fam. 3. TESTACELLID.

Teeth numerous, conical, distant, in diverging cross series on a broad lingual membrane. Mouth proboscis-hke. Jaws none. Shell spiral or subspiral, external, on the hinder part of the body. Operculum none.

Testacellidee, Gray, Ann. & Mag. N. H. 1833. Testacellina, Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1847, 170. Ancylidia, part., Rafin. Anal. Nat. 143, 1815.

Synopsis oF GENERA.

a. Body sulspiral ; labial tentacles small. 1. Testacetuus. Shell ear-shaped. 2. PuecrropHorus. Shell conical.

b. Body spiral ; labial tentacles elongate, contractile. 3. OLEAcINA. Shell fusiform. Pillar smooth.

a. Body subspiral ; labial tentacles small.

1, TESTACELLUS.

Shell small, ear-shaped, subspiral ; mouth very large. Animal elongate, produced in front, with a groove on each side of the back. Mantle and shell on the hinder end of the back; mantle usually the same size as the shell (but capable of great extension so as to cover the rest of the body). Teeth pm-shaped, slightly curved, with a roundish head and acute tip, only attached by a small subcentral roundish process (see page 3, fig. 1).

Limaces a coquilles, Favanne, Conch. i. 429; Zoom. 76. f. A. Testacelle (Testacella), Cuvier, Lee. d’ Anat. Comp. 1.t. 5, 1800 ; Ann. Mus. v.435 ; Mém. Moll. xu.; Reg. Anim. ui. 408. Lamk. Syst. A. s. V. 96. Drap. Tabl. 99; Hist. 23, 30, 221. Blainv. Man. Malac. 463. Philippi, Handb. Conch. 240. Testacellus, Faure-Biguet, Bull. Soc. Phil. n. 61, 1802. Montf. Conch. Syst. i. 94. Férussac, Tab. Syst. ii. 26. 96"; Hist. Moll. Menke, Syn. 1828, 13, 1830. BO

10 PULMONATA.

The Testacelle have a peculiar mantle (or rather appendage of the mantle) which is simply gelatinous, contractile, and habitually hidden under the shell, divided into several lobes, and susceptible of an extraordimary development, so as to envelop the whole of the contracted body, and thus protect it from extreme drought.

They pass the greater part of their life in holes under ground, only coming to the surface to change their locality, and remain buried one or two feet deep in the earth during the cold and very dry weather. They deposit their eggs under ground ; they are oblong, large, and covered with a thick elastic coat, and burst when moved into a warm place. When the animal de- posits its eggs, the head and tentacles are drawn in so that the opening of the oviduct is the end of the body. They live chiefly on worms, but sometimes attack slugs and small specimens of their own species, shells of their own kind being found in their stomach.

Rafinesque names, but does not describe, Testacina, Urcinella and Zilotea.—Anal. Nat? 1815.

1. TESTACELLUS HALIOTIDEUS. B.M.

Yellowish red or grey, spotted or spotless. Tentacles cylin- dric. Shell ovate, pomted behind, horn-coloured, thick, rugose externally, shining within. Spire white, broad and flat.

Limax, Favanne, Conch. Zoom. t. 76. f. Al, A2. Testacelle ormier, Faure-Biguet, Bull. de Sci. ui. n. 61. 38. t. 5. f22, 8, 6, C, D. Testacelle, Cuvier, Ann. Mus. vy. 435. t. 29. f.6, 7, 11; Mém. Moll. xii. t. 1. f. 6, 7, 11. Testacella europa, De Roissy, Sonnini, Buff. Moll. y. 252. Testacellus europeus, Montf. Conch. Syst. u. 93, 96. Testacella haliotidea, Drap. Tabl. 99 ; Hist. 121. t. 8. f. 43, 48; $40 mt. gl2, 14. Lamk. E. M. t. 463. f. 4, cop. Drap. Blainv. Man. Malac. 463. t. 41. f. 2. Testacella galliz, Oken, Lehrb. Naturg. i. 311. t. 9. f. 8. Testacellus haliotideus, Férussac, Tab. Syst. 26; Moll. ii. 94. £8. f. 0-9 Moquin-Tandon, Journ. de Conch. ii. 125.

Var. 1. Pale yellow, not spotted.—Férussac, f. 5, 6. Var. 2.2 Testacella, Férussac, Hist. Moll. 11. t. 8 F. f. 24, 25. Gray, Fig. Moll. t. 286. f. 5. Var. 3. Testacellus bisuleatus, Risso, Hist. Eur. Mérid. 1826, iv. 58. Testacella bisuleata, Dupuy, Moll. France, 45. t. 1. f. 2.

PULMONATA. 11

Var. 4. Testacellus Haliotidea, var., Aleron in Guide Voyage in Roussillon, 1847, p. 327.

Testacella companyonii, Dupuy, Moll. France, i. 47. t. 1. f. 3.

Hab. South of Europe, South of France and Spain: introduced into England.

2. TesTAcELLUS MAUGEI. B.M.

Reddish brown, spotted; edge of foot orange. Tentacles fili- form. Shell ovate elongate, thin, finely striated ; spire elevated, distinct.

Testacellus haliotoideus, Lamk. Syst. 1.96.

Bosc, N. Dict. H. N. xxii. 80.

Buffon, Deterville, i. 239.

Roissy, Buffon, Sonnini, v. 253.

Ledru, Voy. Teneriffe, i. 187. Testacellus Maugei, Férussac, Tab. Syst. 27 ; H. Moll. ii. 94. Hab. Teneriffe ; introduced into England in gardens.

2. PLECTROPHORUS.

Shell very small, subconic, subspiral, on hinder part of the body ; mouth round, with a slight fold on the back edge. Animal produced in front with a granulated disk (enlarged mantle ?), produced before and slightly behind the shell, and with a similar broader granular shield (true mantle?) in front of the back ; with the aperture of respiration in the middle of the right side of the front disk, as in the shield-like mantle of Limaz and Arion. Teeth 2

Limaces 4 coquilles, Favanne, Conch. Zoom. t. 76.

Testacelle, sp., Cuvier, Lec. d’ Anat. Comp. i. t. 7. Lamk. Syst. A. s. V. 96.

Plectrophorus, Férussac, Tab. Syst. 10. 25. 96°, 1819; Hist.

Moll. 1. 84; not Bose.

Gray, Lond. Med. Repos. 1821; Proc.Z.S.1847, 170. n. 439. Philippi, Handb. Conch. 24).

Plectophorus, Gray, Syn. B.M. 1842, 68, misprint.

This genus is only known from a single species observed by the elder D’Orbigny in Teneriffe, and figured by Férussac from his details, and from figures in the old work of Favanne, an author whose figures often require correction. It is so unlike the usual form of terrestrial Mollusca, especially in having the shell placed at a distance from the aperture of respiration, that we cannot but believe there has been some inaccuracy in the description which wants verification. There is reason to believe that one

12 PULMONATA.

figure which has been named P. corninus, only represents an Arion ater with some hardened mucus on its subeaudal gland, which has been mistaken for a shell! This species differs from the others in wanting the posterior shield bearing the shell.

1. PLecrropHorus D’OrsIGNII.

Shell conical, acute ; mouth oval, very concave internally ; left

lip thick, right lip sharp-edged.

Testacelle de Teneriffe, D’Orbigny, MSS.

cose Orbignii, Férussac, Tab. Syst. 26; Moll. ii. 87. 0.1. 7.

Hab. Teneriffe (D’ Orbigny).

2. PLECTROPHORUS COSTATUS. Cochlea testacea terrestris, Favanne, Conch. Zoomorph. t. 76. G1 Orn EK O22 Testacella costata, Bosc, Buffon, Deterv. Coq. iii. 240. Roissy, Buffon, Sonnini Moll. v. 254. Plectrophorus costatus, Férussac, Tab. Syst. 26; Hist. Moll. u. 86. t. 6. f. 6, cop. from Favanne. Hab. Maldives. Only known from a drawing and description sent by M. Solen- drac de Pilmont, “an English (?) traveller,” to Favanne.

3. PLECTROPHORUS 2 CORNINUS. Side of foot pale black-banded.

Limax, Favanne, Conch. i. 429 ; Zoom. t. 76. f. B 1, B 2. Testacella cornina, Bosc, Buffon, Deterv. Coq. iui. 239. Roissy, Buffon Moll. v. 253. Plectrophorus corninus, Férussac, Tab. Syst. 26; Hist. Moll. ii. 86. t. 6. f. 5, from Favanne. Hab. 2

A very doubtful species: see note to the genus.

b. Body spiral: labial tentacles elongate, contractile.

3. OLEACINA.

Shell oblong, acuminate, more or less fusiform; whorls six to eight, last much the largest. Pillar arcuately truncated. Mouth narrow elliptical, oblong or oval. Peristome simple, straight ; of outer lip sinuate. Foot elongate; head produced; mouth proboscidiform. Labial tentacles triangular, slender, elongate, very dilatile, produced on the sides; wpper tentacles elongate, swollen

PULMONATA. 13

at the ends above the eyes. Aperture of reproduction on the

right side rather behind the right tentacles: no dart nor vesi-

cula multifida. Teeth small, conical, in arched cross series. Carnivorous, eating mollusca.

Oleacina, Bolten Mus. (1798); ed. 2. 1819, 77. Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1847, 178. n. 485. Polyphemus, Mont. Conch. Syst. 1810. Say, Amer. Conch. Glandina, Schum. Essai Syst. 202, 1817. Albers, Heliceen, 197. Cochlicopa a, Férussac, Tab. Syst. 1821. Cochlycopa, Swainson, Malac. 1840. Halia, Risso, Eur. Mérid. iv. 1826, not Macgill. Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1847, 178. n. 486. Priamus, Beck, Index. Ferussacia, Risso, Eur. Mérid. iv. 81, 1826. Vediantius, Risso, Eur. Mérid. iv. 81, 1826. Cionella, Albers, Heliceen, 199.

Say described the animal; Dr. Wyman, in the Boston Journ. Nat. Hist. iv. 416, and in the Terrestrial Air-breathing Mollusks of the United States, gives the anatomy of the Oleacina trun- cata, the North American species; Morelet described the animal of Glandina carminensis (Journ. Conch. 11. 1851, 27. t. 1), and Dr. Louis Raymond the anatomy of the Algerian species, O. Al- gira (Journ. Conch. 1853, 14. t. 1), showing the uniform struc- ture of these species. Dr. Raymond observes, the tongue is very similar to that of Testacellus, rough, with small inclined spines. These spines are acute, resistent, and adherent by a moderately sized base. He considers Testacella as a Glandina with a ru- dimentary shell.”

«The teeth, on the surface of the tongue, are sharp poimted, elongated and somewhat recurved, arranged in lines en chevron,’ the apex being directed backwards. There are no teeth on the median line, corresponding to the axis of the tongue ; and in this respect it differs from many of the Pulmoniferous Gasteropoda, in which a range of median symmetrical teeth is generally found to exist.” —Wyman, Bost. Journ. iv. 416. pl. 23. f. 1.

a. Pillar lip distinctly truncate.

* Country unknown.

1. OLEACINA PRIAMUS. B.M.

Shell ovate, ventricose, thin, smooth, diaphanous, fulvous- rosy, ornamented with distant, square, chestnut-red dots, dis-

14 PULMONATA.

posed in transverse lines; spire short; lip sharp. Lon. 68, lat. 34; ap. lon. 48, lat. 25 mill.

Helix Priamus, Menschen in Cat. Mus. Gron. n. 1355. Gronovii Zoophyl. fase. 3. t. 2. f. 10, 11 (Cochlicopa). Fer. Pr dbbs) Histat. 135,55: Helix Priapus, Gmel. 3654. n. 198. Buccmum ficus, Martyn, Univ. Conch. ed. Chenu (Bibl. Conch. ii.), 2Dt. 28st. Stal stercus pulicum, Chemn. ix. pt. 2. 35. t. 120. f. 1026, Bulla stercus pulicum, Gmel. 3434. n. 45. Bulla Priamus, Dillw. Deser. Cat. i. 493. n. 51. Bulimus Priamus, Brug. in Enc. Méth. i. 360. n. 104. Achatina Priamus, Lam. xii. p. 131; ed. Desh. 299. Kiister, t. 3. f. 7, 8. Pfr. Mon. Helic. i. 279. Achatina maculata, Swains. Exot. Conch. t. 23. Priamus stercus pulicum, Beck (teste Desh. 300). Priamus, Sow. Conch. Man. ed. 2. f. 545. Halia stercus pulicum, Herrm. Ind. Gen. Mal. i. 495. Hab. 2? “Spain” (Martyn). Coast of Guinea?” (Feér.)

Dr. Beck and some other authors have considered this as a marine species, but hardly on sufficient evidence. Many terres- trial shells are washed down by the rivers into the sea, and are often found on the coast with zoophytes parasitic on them; they have, for this reason, formed it mto a genus, under the names of Hala and'Priamus.

** American. 2. OLEACINA VOLUTA. B.M.

Shell oblong, subfusiform, rather solid, smooth, reddish under the greenish-horny epidermis; spire short, conic, rather obtuse ; whorls seven or eight, flattened, the last nearly equalling two- thirds the length, attenuated downwards; suture linear, white- margined ; columella strongly arched, abruptly truncated at the base of the narrow, pointed-oblong aperture; peristome sharp. Lon. 51, lat. 19; ap. lon. 30, lat. 9 mill.

Bulla voluta, Chemn. ix. pt. 2. 16. t. 117. f. 1009, 1010. Dillw. Descr. Cat. i. 486. n. 34.

Bulimus glans, Brug. Enc. Méth. i. 365. n. 111.

Helix glans (Cochlicopa), Fer. Pr. 362.

Achatina glans, Lam. xii. 132, ed. Desh. 300. Blainv. Malac. t. 40. f. 2? Kiister, t. 7. f. 4, 5.

PULMONATA. 15

Achatina voluta, Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 279. Reeve, Conch. Icon. n. 55. t. 14. Desh. in Fér. ii. 177. n. 40. t. 124. f. 5, 6.

Oleacina volutata, Bolt. 110. n. 1411.

Polyphemus glans, Montf. 11. 415. t. 104. Villa, Disp. Syst. 19.

Sow. Conch. Man. f. 288 (err. 298). Glandina olivacea, Schumacher, 202. Glandina glans, Beck, Index, 78. n. 10. Glandina voluta, Pfr. Symb. 1. 136.

Morelet, 1. c. 37.

Alb. 197.

Cochlycopa glans, Swains. Malac. 335.

Hab. Antilles.

3. OLEACINA LEUCOZONIAS. B.M.

Shell subfusiform-oblong, very finely striated longitudinally, chestnut, irregularly striped with remote, wavy, white lines; whorls eight, shghtly convex, the last equalling the spire, an- gular ; anterior lips whitish, prominent ; columella slightly arched, ribbed, obliquely truncated ; aperture irregularly oblong, narrow ; peristome simple, white, dextral margin angularly di- lated towards the base. Lon. 46, lat. 17; ap.-lon. 24, lat. 8 mill.

Martini, iv. 220. t. 148. f. 1371, 1372.

Voluta leucozonias, Walch in Naturforscher, iv. 110. t. 1. f. 3,4. Gmel. 3453. n. 56. Dillw. Descr. Cat. i. 547. n. 110.

Helix leucozonias (Cochlicopa), Fér. Pr. 363.

Achatina albolineata, Lam. xv. 132, ed. Desh. 301. Crouch, 19. t. 15. f. 5a. Kiister, t. 14. f. 7, 8.

Achatina leucozonias, Sow. Gen. Shells, n. 14. Reeve, Conch. Syst. ii. t. 176. f. 3; Conch. Icon. t. 14.f. 52. Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 280. n. 103; Ic. n. 15. Bul. t. 24. f. 11. Desh. 1. c. 178. n. 41. t. 123. f. 13, 14.

Polyphemus leucozonias, Jan. Cat. 4.

Glandina leucozonias, Beck, Index, 78. n. 7. Morelet, 1. c. 38.

Hab. Martinique.

4. OLEACINA STRAMINEA.

Shell oblong, somewhat fusiform, thin, fragile, very polished, straw-yellow, pellucid; spire elongate, convexly conic; apex

16 PULMONATA.

rather pointed; whorls five, moderately convex, the penultimate ones rather broad, the last ovate, a little longer than the spire ; aperture elongate, narrow, attenuated posteriorly, dilated ante- riorly ; columella short, concave, acuminated above, twisted ; peristome sharp, contracted in the middle, dilated forwards. Length 37, breadth 15 mill. (Desh.)

Achatina straminea, Desh. in Fér. Hist. ti. 172. n. 34. t. 123. Slik; 12. Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 507.

Locality unknown.

5. OLEACINA ATTENUATA.

Shell oblong-fusiform, slender, thm, smooth, very shining, fulvous, marked with darker arcuate streaks ; spire elongate, conic; apex rather blunt; suture slight, rather simple; whorls seven, rather flat, the last forming about three-fifths of the total length, attenuated in front ; columella somewhat callous, slightly arched and twisted, obliquely truncated at its base ; aperture very narrow, oblong, acute above, dilated towards the left side near the base; peristome simple; right margi sinuate. Length 31, breadth 11 mill. ( Pfr.)

Achatina attenuata, Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1851, p. ; Ie. n. 43. Bul. t. 26. f. 10, 11; Mon. Suppl. 507.

Hab. Central America.

6. OLEACINA OLEACEA. B.M.

Shell subfusiform-oblong, thin, smooth, very shining, greenish- horny, pellucid ; spire conic, apex rather acute ; suture somewhat margined ; whorls seven to eight, slightly convex, the last a little exceeding the spire, somewhat attenuated at the base ; columella short, arched, obliquely truncated above the base of the pointed- oblong aperture, dilated towards the base; peristome sharp, dextral margin dilated midway in front. Lon. 29, lat. 10; ap. lon. 15%, lat. 5 mill.

Helix oleacea (Cochlicopa), Fér. Pr. 360 et Mus. ! Achatina oleacea, Desh. in Enc. Méth. ii. 11. n. 6; in Gueér. Mag. 1831, t. 3; 1. c. 172. n. 33. t. 123. f. 5, 6. Lam. ed. Desh. xxiii. 307. Orb. Moll. Cub. i. 165. t. 10. f. 15, 16. Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 280; Ic. n. 79, Bul. t. 38. f. 3, 4. Reeve, Conch. Icon. t. 14. f. 51. Achatina fulgens, Mus. Berol. olim. Polyphemus oleaceus, Pfr. in Wiegm. Arch. 1839, i, 352.

PULMONATA. 17

Glandina oleacea, Beck, Index, 78. n. 9. Pfr. Symb. ii. 136. Phil. Icon. i. 6. 131. t. 1. f. 1. Morelet, 1. c. 37. Alb. 197.

Hab. Cuba.

7. OLEACINA GLABRA,

Shell ovate-conic, thin, glabrous, shiming, pale horny, orna- mented with narrow, distant, rufous stripes, vanishing at the middle of the last whorl; spire conic, apex obtuse; suture very finely crenulate-margined ; whorls eight, flattened, the last scarcely exceeding the spire; columella very oblique, strongly arched, truncated at the base of the subtriangular aperture ; peri- stome simple, dextral margin regular. Lon. 28, lat. 11; ap. lon. 14, lat. 5 mill.

Achatina glabra, Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 281; Ic. n. 113. Bull. t. 67. Jil We Reeve, Conch. Icon. t. 14. f. 58. Glandina glabra, Pfr. Symb. iui. 90. Morelet, 1. c. 37.

Hab. Porto Rico.

8. OLEACINA ASSIMILIS.

Shell ovate-oblong, rather solid, smooth, pellucid, very shining, reddish horn-coloured; spire convexly conic, rather blunt; su- ture bordered; whorls five and a half, scarcely convex, the last about as long as the spire, slightly attenuated in front; colu- mella slightly twisted, obliquely truncated ; aperture perpendi- cular, narrow, rhomboidally-semiovate ; peristome simple, blunt, with the right margin slightly sinuate. Length 20, breadth 9 mill. (Pfr.)

Achatina assimilis, Reeve, Conch. Icon. n. 67. t. 15. Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 508.

Locality unknown.

9. OLEACINA OBTUSA.

Shell ovate, attenuated each way, apex obtuse, smooth, rather solid, pellucid, flesh-coloured ; suture margined, obsoletely cre- nulate; whorls five and a half, very slightly convex, the last a little exceeding the spire; columella nearly vertical, abruptly truncated; aperture rather wide; peristome simple, margins united by a very thin callus, dextral scarcely dilated in the middle. Lon. 26, lat. 11; ap. lon. 123, lat. 53 mill.

18 PULMONATA.

Achatina obtusa (Glandina), Pfr. in Phil. Icon. 1. 6. 132. t.1.£.3; Mon. Helic. nu. 281; Ic. n. 80. Bul. t. 38. f. 5, 6. Reeve, Conch. Icon. t. 15. f. 62. Deshstnewfoymecoat. 1o4. 4. a4. Glandina obtusa, Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1845, p. 42. Alb. 197. Morelet, l. c. 37.

Hab. Real Llejos, Province of Nicaragua, Central America.

10. OLeEActINA LINDONI. B.M.

Shell oblong, attenuated each way, rather solid, smooth, shining, pale fulvous, marked with darker, slightly prominent, arched Imes of growth; spire conic, rather acute; suture slightly margmed; whorls eight, nearly level, the two last de- scending obliquely, the last equalling the spire, gibbous within, on the columella; columella short, obliquely truncated at the base of the aperture ; aperture very narrow, somewhat channelled at the base; peristome simple, margins united by a callus, the dextral arched dilated in front. Lon. 21, lat. 6; ap. lon. 103, lat. 2 mill.

Achatina Lindoni (Glandina), Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1846, p- 116; Mon. Helic. 11. 281. Reeve, Conch. Icon. t. 25. f.88. Desh. l. c. 174. n. 36. t. 134. f. 5-7. Glandina Lindoni, Morelet, Journ. Conch. 1852, p. 37. Glandina onychina, Morelet, Test. Noviss. 1. 14. n. 25. Achatina onychina, Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 508, 657.

Hab. Cuba.

11. OLEACINA DELIBUTA.

Shell cylindrical, thin, very faintly striated, shimng, semi- diaphanous, horn-coloured-greenish ; spire conoidal, short, with the apex rather blunt ; suture scarcely impressed, bordered ; whorls seven, rather flat, the last longer than the spire; colu- mella callous, twisted, slightly truncated exteriorly; aperture narrow, dilated in front, pearly within; peristome simple, with the outer margin dilated in the middle. Length 23, breadth 10 mill. (Mor.)

Glandina delibuta, Morelet, Test. Noviss. ii. 13. n. 108 ; Journ. Conch, 1852, 40. Achatina delibuta, Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 508.

Hab. Province of Vera Paz, Guatemala.

PULMONATA. 19

12. OLEACINA LABIDA.

Shell ovate-conic, rather solid, very faintly striated, semitrans- parent, horn-yellow, marked on the last whorl with several pale greenish streaks; spire conic, short; suture scarcely impressed, bordered ; whorls seven, little convex, the last equalling half the total length ; columella callous, twisted, scarcely truncated ; aperture narrow, semiovate. Length 22, breadth 103 mill. (Mor.)

Glandina labida, Morelet, Test. Noviss. 1. 13. n. 107. Achatina labida, Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 508.

Hab. Vera Paz, Guatemala.

13. OLEACINA RIISEI.

Shell turreted-oblong, rather solid, smooth, marked with di- stant impressed longitudinal lines, shining, irregularly painted with rather broad fuscous streaks; spire elongate, rather blunt ; suture nearly simple; whorls seven, scarcely convex, the last forming not quite two-fifths of the total length, somewhat atte- nuated in front; columella slightly arched, abruptly truncated above the base of the aperture, which is almost perpendicular, sinuately semiovate; peristome simple, straight, night margin slightly smuate. Length 20, breadth 7 mill. ( Pfr.)

Achatina Rusei, Pfr. in Z. f. M. 1852, p. 151; Ic. n. 114. Bul. t. 67. f. 3,4; Mon. Suppl. 509. Hab. Porto Rico (Riise).

14. OLEACINA SOLIDULA.

Shell subfusiform-oblong, rather solid, bright fulvous, sub- pellucid ; spire conic, rather obtuse ; suture submarginate ; whorls six, scarcely convex, the last less than five-ninths the length ; columella strongly and obliquely truncated; aperture narrow, lengthened acuminate ; peristome simple, obtuse, dextral margin arched midway in front. Lon. 13, lat.435 ap. lon. 63, lat. 2 mill.

Polyphemus solhidulus, Pfr. in Wiegm. Arch. 1840, i. 252. Glandina solidula, Pfr. Symb. 1. 136; Ic. n. 82. Bul. t. 38. f. 8-11. Reeve, n. 92. t. 18. Desh. 1. c. 174. n. 37. t. 134. f. 8-11. Phil. Icon. i. 6.:131; t. 1. £..6. Alb. 198. Achatina solidula, Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 282. Reeve, Conch. Icon. t. 18. f. 92. Var. Glandina paragramma, Morelet, Test. Noviss. i. 15. n. 31

Hab. Cuba.

20 PULMONATA.

15. OLEACINA INCERTA.

Shell oblong, transparent horny; spire somewhat obtuse ; whorls six, rather flattened, smooth, shmimg, faintly margined round the upper part; columella conspicuously truncated ; aper- ture oblong, narrowed at the upper part. Length 122 mill. (Reeve.)

Achatina incerta, Reeve, Conch. Icon. n. 90. t. 18. Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 509.

Glandina incerta, Morelet in Journ. Conch. 1852, 35.

Locality unknown.

Very like O. solidula, from which it differs in being more ven- tricose towards the base.

16. OLEACINA SUBULATA.

Shell subcylindrical, attenuated each way, smooth, horny-ful- vous, pellucid ; spire elongate-conic, rather acute ; whorls six to seven, the highest slightly convex, the rest rather level, marked with an opake line below the suture, the last less than three- sevenths the length; columella slightly oblique, narrowly trun- cated ; aperture oblong ; peristome simple, dextral margin arched in front, midway. Lon. 12, lat. 23; ap. lon. 6, lat. 2 mill. Polyphemus subulatus, Pfr. in Wiegm. Arch. 1839, 352. Glandina subulata, Pfr. Symb. u. 136.

Phil. Icon. i. 6. 132. t. 1. f. 10. Alb. 198. Helix orysaca, Rang, teste Orb. Achatina orysaca, Orb. Moll. Cub. i. 167. t. 10. f. 20-25? Achatina subulata, Pfr. Mon. Helic. 1. 282; Ic. n. 83. Bul. t. 38. f12; 13. Reeve, Conch. Icon. t. 18. f. 89. Hab. Cuba.

17. OLEACINA FOLLICULARIS.

Shell ovate, thin, smooth, pellucid, fulvous ; spire short, blunt ; whorls five, little convex; suture slightly bordered; columella scarcely arched, truncated ; aperture narrow, oblong, formmg more than half of the total length. Length 12, breadth 5 mill. (Mor.)

Glandina follicularis, Morelet, Test. Noviss. i. 14. n. 26. Achatina follicularis, Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 510. Hab. Isla de Pimos, near Cuba.

PULMONATA. 21

18. OLEACINA SUTURALIS.

Shell ovate, greenish-horny, thin, pellucid, shining ; spire conic, rather acute ; suture deep, rufous or blackish ; whorls five and a half, convex, the last less than four-sevenths the length; colu- mella nearly straight, white, slightly truncated obliquely at the base of the pointed-oblong aperture; peristome sharp, dextral margin sinuous in the middle. Lon. 103, lat. 43; ap. lon. 63, lat. 2 mill.

Polyphemus suturalis, Pfr. in Wiegm. Arch. 1839, i. 353. Glandina suturalis, Pfr. Symb. u. 136.

Phil. Icon. i. 6. 132. t. 1. f. 7.

Kiister, t. 18. f. 22, 23.

Alb. 198. Achatina suturalis, Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 285 ; Ic. n. 85. Bul. t. 38.

f. 16-18. Reeve, Conch. Icon. t. 20. f. 118.

Hab. Cuba.

19. OLEACINA ANTONIANA.

Shell ovate-conoidal, pellucid, shining, yellowish-grey, mi- nutely striated ; whorls five, convex, the last equalling two-fifths the length ; suture deep ; aperture oblong-oval ; peristome sharp ; columella strongly truncated. Lon. 23, lat. 1} ln.

Achatina hyalina, Anton, Verz. 41. n. 1589 (not Rang). Achatina Antoniana, Pfr. Mon. Helic. 11. 285. Hab. S. America.

20. OLEACINA CRENULATA.

Shell fusiform-ovate, rather solid, reddish-horny, shinmg ; apex of the spire obtuse ; whorls six and a half, slightly convex, the last descending, shorter than the spire; suture margined and very minutely crenulate; aperture dilated below; columella slightly arched, strongly truncated; peristome simple. Lon. 24, lat. 11; ap. lon. 11 mull.

Achatina crenulata, (Sow.?) Ant. Verz. 44. n. 1595. Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 285.

Glandina crenulata, Pfr. Symb. u. 59.

Hab. Central America.

21. OLEACINA OTTONIS.

Shell subfusiform, rather solid, yellowish-horny, shining ; whorls six and a half, flattened, gradually increasing, the highest

22 PULMONATA.

ornamented with fine, close, longitudinal plaits, scarcely crossing the suture of the last whorl; suture impressed, elegantly crenu- late; columella arched-truncate ; aperture narrow; peristome ee dextral margin enlarged in the middle. Lon. 12, lat. 4

Cochlicopa Ottonis, Pfr. Symb. i. 47. Glandina Ottonis, Pfr. Symb. 11. 136. Phil. Icon. i. 6. 132. t. 1. f. 5. Alb. 197. Achatina Ottonis, Pfr. Mon. Helic. ii. 286; Ic. n. 112. Bul. t. 44. f. 11-13. Glandina semistriata, Morelet, Test. Noviss. i. 16. n. 32. Hab. Cuba.

22. OLEACINA SICILIS.

Shell fusiform, much attenuated on both sides, rather solid, shining, pale horn-coloured, sculptured with minute plaits, which disappear on the last whorl ; spire turreted ; whorls eight, rather flattened; suture minutely crenulated; aperture very narrow, a little longer than the spire; columella rather short and straight, truncated arcuately; peristome simple, with the margms umted by a thin callus. Length 16-17, breadth 6 mill. (Mor.) Glandina sicilis, Morelet, Test. Noviss. 1. 13. n. 24.

Pfr. Mon. Suppl. 512. Hab. Guajaibon Mountains, Cuba.

93. OLEACINA ISABELLINA.

Shell fusiform-oblong, thin, shming, under a lens closely striated spirally, isabelline, pellucid ; suture bordered with an impressed line; whorls six, slightly convex, the last scarcely shorter than the obtuse, conic spire ; columella oblique, nearly straight, slightly truncated above the base of the elliptic-oblong aperture; peri- stome simple. Lon. 26, lat. 10; ap. lon. 13, lat. 5 mill.

Achatina isabellina(Glandina), Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1846, 32 ; Mon. Helic. 1. 286. Reeve, Conch. Icon. t. 21. f. 95.

Hab. Mexico.

24. OLEACINA ORNATA.

Shell ovate-fusiform, longitudinally closely and regularly cos- tulate, diaphanous, fulvous-reddish, ornamented with scattered

PULMONATA. 23

darker stripes; spire pyramidate, acute; suture crenulate-mar- gined with a parallel furrow; whorls eight, very slightly convex, the last scarcely equalling the spire; columella nearly straight, abruptly truncated; aperture oblong, attenuated each way, pearly within. Lon. 72, lat. 31; ap. lon. 37, lat. 14 mill.

Achatina costulata, Pfr. in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1845, 75 (not Adams). Achatina ornata, Pfr. in Zeitschr. f. Mal. 1846, 117 ; Mon. Helic. i. 287.

Hab. New Granada.

95. OLEACINA TRUNCATA. B.M.

Shell oblong-ovate, solid, very closely plicate-striated longi- tudinally, ashy rose-coloured ; spire conic, rather acute; suture subcrenulate-margined ; whorls six, very slightly convex, the last less than the spire; columella slightly arched, abruptly trnncated at the base ; aperture oval-oblong, narrowed each way ; peristome sharp. Lon. 59, lat. 24; ap. lon.