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PART I.— 1860.

I. Synopsis Ci'escentiacearum : an Enumeration of all the Crescentiaceous Plants at

present Tcnown. By Bekthold Seemann, Esq., Fh.D., F.L.S. . . . page 1

II. On the Distribtition of the Tracheae in Insects. By John Lubbock, Esq., F.B.S.^

F.L.S., 8rc 23

III. On some new Species of Musci and Hepaticse in the Herhariwm of Sir W. J. Hooker,

collected in Tropical Africa, chiefly by the late Dr. Vogel and Mr. Barter. By William Mitten, Esq., A.L.S 51

IV. Further Researches on Tomopteris onisciformis, Eschscholtz. By William B.

Carpenter, M.I)., F.B.S., F.L.S. , F.G.S., and Edouard Claparede, 31. B., Fellow of the Physical Society of Geneva 59

V. Further Observations on the Metamorphosis of Gasteropoda, and the Affinities of

certain Genera, with an attempted Natural Bistribution of the principal Families of the Order. By John Denis Macdonald, Assistant Surgeon of S. M. S. "Herald," Captain H. M. Denham, R.N., F.B.S. Communicated by Professor Huxley, F.B.S., F.L.S G9

VI. On Sycopsis. By Daniel Oliver, Esq., F.L.S 83

VII. On tiDo Tuberiform Vegetable Productions from Travancore. By the Rev. M. J.

Berkeley, M.A., F.L.S. 91

VIII. Remarks on ^clesoiivim stipitatum. Berk, et Curr., Pachyma Cocos, Fries, and some similar productions. By Prederick Currey, Esq., M.A., F.R.S., F.L.S., and Daniel Hanbury, Esq., F.L.S 93


IX. Ow some New Zealand Verrucarise. By Charles Knight, Esq., F.L.S. . page 99

X. Contributions to the Lichenographia of New Zealand ; being an account, loith figures,

of some new Species of Graphiclese amd allied Lichens. By Chas. Knight, Esq., F.L.S. , Auditor-General of New Zealand; and W. Mitten, Esq., A.L.S. . 101

XI. The Nervous System of the Asteridae ; with observations on the Structure of their

Organs of Sense, and remarks on the Reproduction of lost Bays. By Henry S. Wilson, II.D., Junior Demonstrator of Anatomy in the University of Edinburgh. Commmiicated by Thomas Anderson, M.D., F.L.S 107

XII. Observations on the Netiration of the Sind Wings of Hymenopterous Insects, and

on the Hooks which join the Fore and Hind Wings together in flight. By Miss Staveley. Communicated by Dr. John Edward Gray, F.B.S., F.L.S., V.P.Z.S., ^c 125

XIII. On certain Sensory Organs in Insects, hitherto undescribed. By J. Braxton Hicks, M.B. Land., F.L.S 139

XIV. niustrations of the Floras of the Malayan Archipelago and of Tropical Africa. By Joseph D. Hooker, M.D., B.N, F.B.S., L.S. Sf G.S 155

XV. On some Oceanic Entomostraca collected by Captain Toynbee. By John Lubbock,

Esq., F.B.S. Sf L.S. 173

XVI. On the Anatomy and Development of Pyrosoma. By Thomas H. Huxley, Esq., F.B.S. , F.L.S., Sec.G.S., Professor of Nat%iral History in the Government School of Mines 193

PART II.— 1861.

XVII. Outlines of the Distribution of Arctic Pla/nts. By Joseph D. Hooker, M.D., F.B.S., Src 251

XVIII. Further Observations on Entozoa, with Experiments. By T. Spencer Cobbold, M.D., F.L.S 349

XIX. On Proliflcation in Flowers, and especially on that Form termed Media/n Prolifi- cation. By Maxwell T. Masters, Esq., F.L.S., Lecturer on Botany at St. George's Hospital 359


XX. On the Circulation of the Blood in Pegea, as bearing on the question of a Lining to

the Vascular System in the Tunicata in general. By John D. Macdonald, B.N., F.B.S. Commmiicated by George Busk, Esq., F.B.S., Sec. B.S. . . page 371

XXI. On the Physiology of the Pallial Sinuses of the Brachiopoda. By John D. Mac- donald, B.N., F.B.S. Communicated by George Busk, Fsq., F.B.S. , Sec. B.S 373

XXII. On the Nerve proceeding to the Vesicles at the Base of the Halter es, and on the Sub-costal Nermhre hi the Wings of Insects. By J. Braxton Hicks, M.B. Lond., F.L.S. 377

XXIII. On Three Oaks of Palestine. By J. D. Hooker, 3I.B., F.B.S., F.L.S., Sfc. 381

XXIV. On Fissicalyx and Prioria, two recently published Genera of Leguminosse. By George Bentham, Esq., Pres. L.S. 389

XXV. The Foot of the Fly ; its Structure and Action : elucidated by comparison with the Feet of other Insects, Sfc. Part I. By Tufeen West, Esq., F.B.S. . . 393

PAET III.— 1862.

XXVI. Note on the Structure of the Anther. By Daniel Oliver, Esq., F.B.S., Pro- fessor of Botany in University College, London 423

XXVII. Notes on the Thysanura. Part I. Smynthurid^. By John Lubbock, Esq., F.B.S., F.L.S., 8fc 429

XXVIII. On the Geographical Belations of the Coleoptera of Old Calabar. By Andrew Murray, Esq., F.L.S., Assist. Sec. B. Hort. Soc 449

XXIX. Note on Hamamelis and Loropetalum; with a Description of a new Aniso- ])h.j\].eafrom Malacca. By Daniel Oliver, Esq., F.L.S 457

XXX. On African Anonacese. By George Bentham, Esq., Pres. L.S 468

XXXI. On Prolifioation in Flowers, and especially on that kind termed Axillary Pro- Ufication. By Maxwell T. Masters, Esq., F.L.S., Lecturer on Botany at St. George^ s Hospital 4.8I


XXXII. Contr'ibutions to an Insect Fauna of the Amazon Valley. Lepidoptera : Heliconid^. By Henry Walter Bates, Bsq. Communicated by the Secre- tary page 495

XXXIII. Observations on the Oonidia, and Confervoid Filaments of llosses, and on the relation of their Oonidia to those of Lichens and of certain freshwater Algce. By J. Braxton Hicks, 3LB. Bond., F.B.S. Sf L.S 567

XXXIV. Notes on the Thysanura. Part II. By John Lubbock, Esq., F.B.S. , F.B.S. , FG.S 589

XXXV. On the Specific Identity of the described Forms of Tanalia. By Henry F . Blanford, Bsq. Comnmnicated by Dr. Joseph Hooker, F.B.S., F.B.S. , 8fc. 603


Page 41, line 4 from bottom, for ' origin ' read ' organ.'

,, 101-6. In Messrs. Knight and Mitten's " Contributions to the Lichenographia of New Zealand," in all the measurements, for ' from ' and ' to ' read ' breadth' and ' length.'

149, line 3 from top, for ' limbs ' read ' body.' In vol. xxii. p. 381-2, in Mr. Knight's paper " On the Bitentaculate Slug, ifec. of New Zealand," the

references to Plate LXVI. are wrong. Nos. 6, 7, 8, 11, 12, & 15 are dissections, &c. of the common

Black Slug of the Northern Island.


Page 41, line 4 from bottom, ybr origin read organ. Page 149, line 3 from top, /or limbs read body.



I. Synopsis Crescentiacearum : an JEnumeration of all the Crescentiaceous Plants at present know7i. By Bebthold Seemann, Esq., Ph.D., F.L.S.

Read November 17th, 1859.

In 1853 I had the honour of laying before the Linnean Society a sliort paper on CrescentiacecB (conf. Proceedings Linn. Soc. ii. p. 268), accompanied by a promise of a more elaborate treatise on the same subject. As it was absolutely necessary to pay visits to Vienna, Berlin, and Paris, in order to compare the herbaria of those places with the notes made on the London Collections, I find myself only now in a position to fulfil my promise. I have seen eleven species of Crescentiacece in a living state, five of them wild in their native countries ; and have besides carefully examined the various herbaria, but regret that these materials are not so complete as could be wished. Of some species there are only single specimens preserved, and the friiit of most species is merely superficially known. The generic characters are therefore in some instances left incomplete, and the limits of a few species await further settlement.

That the Crescentiaceous plants, or rather the genera Galea, Phyllarthron, Tancecium, Parmentiera, Crescentia, and Kigelia constitute a closely associated group of the Personatce, needs, as a universally accepted fact, no demonstration, the views of Jussieti, who regarded them as Solanacece, not having found any modern supporters. But it will be necessary to say a few words respecting the diversity of prevailing opinions as to the affinity and rank they hold in the natural system. It is stUl a matter of debate whether this group should be regarded in the light of a separate order, or merely as a suborder of either Bigno- niacecB or Gesneracece. Bojer (Hort. Maurit. p. 220) placed it with Bignoniaceoi (in which he was followed by Don,DeCandolle,Eenzl*, Miers, and others) ; Endlicher and Miquel with

* Fenzl associates three foreign elements with Crescentiacea : viz. Spatkodea, and Periblema, both Bipnoiiiacrre ; and Bravaisia, a true Acanthacea (= Onchtjcanthns Cumingianus, Nees).




Gemeracece. Gardner (Hook. Journ. ii. p. 424) erected it into a separate natural order, in whicli he was supported by Lindley (Veg. Kingdom, p. 673) and myself (Proc. Linn. Soc. ii. p. 268, and Bot. Herald, p. 181). CrescentiacetB seem to me to stand between CyrtandrecR and Bignoniacece, wbere they are placed by Lindley : they differ from Cyrtcmdrece in the transverse position of their seed ; from Bignoniacece in their indehiscent fruit and wingless seed. Respecting their claim to the rank of a separate natural order, it must be conceded that it depends entirely upon the subjective importance attached to certain characters upon which the various orders composing the great class Bersonatts {Bignoniales, Lindl.) are founded. Por instance, if Orodancliece, in vktue of their spherical pollen, capsular fruit, parietal placentae, anatropal ovule, and albuminous wingless seed, are held to be a separate order of plants, as is done in most systematic works, there is no option but to acknow- ledge the independence of the Crescentiacece, unless indeed the whole of the Bersonatce are looked upon as one great natural order, and Crescentiacece, Accmthacece, Bignonlaoece, Scrophularinece, etc. as merely so many suborders or tribes. In the former case there would be 10 separate natural orders ranged under Bersonatce, the differences of which often rest upon only a single constant character. This will be seen from the following sketch, which wiU also show that, if any of the distinctive characters pointed out be disregarded, several large groups fall together,

Personate {Bignoniales et Orobanchece, Lindl.). 5 I. Pl.ace?it(S parietales.

Pedaliacem. Pollen .... Ovula anatropa. Drupa vel capsula. Semina erecta v. pendula, aptera? exalbuminosa.

Besleriacece. Pollen ellipticum. Ovula anatropa. Bacca. Semina pendula, aptera, albuminosa.

Gesneracets. Pollen ellipticum. Ovula anatropa. Capsula. Semina pendula, aptera, albuminosa.

Orohanchecs. Pollen sph^ricura. Ovula anatropa. Capsula. Semina aptera, albuminosa.

Didymocarpets. Pollen .... Ovula anatropa. Capsula. Semina pendula, plerumque aptera, albuminosa.

Cyrtandrece, Pollen .... Ovula anatropa. Bacca. Semina pendula, aptera, exalbuminosa.

Cresceniiaceae. Pollen sphaericum. Ovula anatropa. Bacca. Semina transversa, aptera, ex- albuminosa. § II. Placenta axillares.

Bignoniacece. Pollen ellipticum. Capsula. Ovula anatropa. Semina transversa, alata, exalbuminosa.

Acanthacem. Pollen sphEericum. Ovula amphitropa v. campylotropa. Capsula. Semina erecta, aptera, exalbuminosa.

ScrophularinecB, Pollen ellipticum. Ovula anatropa v. amphitropa. Capsula*. Semina erecta, aptera, albuminosa.

§ III. Placenta centrales.

Lentibularia. Pollen ellipticum. Ovula anatropa. Capsula. Semina .... aptera, exalbuminosa.

* Miers (Illustrations of South American Plants, i. App. p. 164) has incorporated all the baccate genera, fornierly placed in ScrophularinecB, in his order Atropacece, standing between Scrophularinece and Solanacece.



Crescentiacece, Gardn. in Hook. Journ. ii. p. 423 (1840); Lindl. Veg. Kingd. p. 673 (1846);

Seem, in Proc. Linn. Soc. ii. p. 268 (1853), Bot. Herald, p. 181 (1854). Bignoniacearum et

Gesneracearum tribus auct. Char. Obdinis emend. Arbores \e\frutices stantes vel interdum scandentes, sEepe glabrae, 7'amis plus minusve angulatis. Folia alterna, fasciculata, opposita v. verticillata, petiolata, nunc simplicia, saepissime integeri-ima, nunc composita (trifoliolata vel imparipinnata). Stipules nullae, vel interdum e gemmis axillaribus foliis primariis spurise. Flores hermaphroditi, subregulares vel irregulares, terminales vel axillares, vel saepissime ex trunco aut basi ramorum orti, solitarii, racemosi vel paniculati. Calyx liber, gamophyllus, persistens vel deciduus, 5-merus, spathaceus vel bipartitus. Corolla hypogyna, gamopetala, subcampanulata, infundibuliformis vel hypocraterimorpha, limbo 5- lobo, subaequali vel subbilabiato, lobis per aestivationem duplicato-plicatis vel subplicato-imbricatis. Stamina 4, didynama, cum rudimento quinti, corollag tubo inserta, ejusdem laciniis alterna, exserta vel inclusa. Filamenta simplicia. AnthercB biloculares (abortu uniloculares), loculis discretis. Pollen sphaericum. Discus hypogynus glandulosus, obsolete lobatus, ovarii basin cingens. Ovarium liberum, 1-loculare ; ovula anatropa, indefinita. Stylus terminalis, simplex. Stigma bilobum vel bilamellatum. Fructus baccatus, 1-locularis, vel spurie 2-4- pluri-locularis. Semina plurima, aptera, transversa. Albumen nullum. Embryo rectus vel curvatus. Radicula umbilico proxima, brevis, crassa. Cotyledones plano-convesae.

Obs. This definition excludes PeriUema, DeCand. Prod. ix. p. 242 {Boiitonia, De Cand.), a Madagascar genus having a bilocular ovary, and two o-\T.iles in each cell. Its fruit is unknown. It will therefore be much better placed among the genuine Blg- noniacece, its definite number of ovules showing it to possess some affinity with Flatycarpum, H. et B., and Senriquezia, Spruce (Linn. Trans, xxii. p. 296).

Geographical Distribution. The Crescentiaeece are inhabitants of the tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres, ranging from 30° S. to 30° X. latitude. They occiu' in the greatest - number in Madagascar, Mauritius, the Seychelles and other islands of Eastern Africa. In America they are represented by 10 species, the most northern of which (Crescentia Cnjete, Linn.) is found in Key West, Elorida. In Asia only two species have as yet been discovered, one of them (Colea Mauritiana, Boj.) having been collected in Timor, and also in Mauritius and Madagascar, the other ( C. tripimiata, Seem.) in Cochin- china. No representative of the order has hitherto been met with either in Eui'oj)e, or the continent of Australia. Numerically we may state that Africa produces 16, America 10, and Asia 2 members of this group of plants.- Considerable additions may, however, still be expected from the islands of Eastern Africa, and necessitate a careful revision of the genuine BignoniacecB and allied orders. Eour species are extensively cultivated in the tropics, viz. Crescentia Gujete, Linn, and C. alata, H. B. K. (both for the sake of their hard-shelled fruit), Colea Telfairice, Boj. (on account of its edible, agreeable-flavoured fruit), and Kigelia pinnata, DeCand. Probably the great geographical range which Cres- centia Cujete, Linn, and Kigelia pinnata, DeCand. enjoy (the former in America, the latter in Africa), is in a great measure owing to their having accompanied man in his wanderings, been planted where new homes were established, and become gradually naturalized, and to all appearance wild, in the localities where we now meet with them.



Properties and Uses. All CrescentiacecB may be termed ornamental plants, the fine foliage, elegant flowers, and curious fruit of which have already procured for theu' order a fair representation in our gardens. We cultivate (1859) Colea floribunda, Boj. ; two species of Fhi/llar- thron (P. Bojerianuni, DeCand. and P. Co??ior^«se, DeCand. = P. Foivrecmtim, DeCand.) ; TancBciimi parasiticum, Swartz ; all the known species of Crescentia, and Kigelia pinnata, DeCand. Farmentiera cereifera, Seem, was in 1845 at Kew, but has since been lost. Several Crescentiacece furnish excellent timber ; and considerable praise is given in this respect to the Kigelia pinnata,DeCa.n(i.., of which canoes, posts and pillars, etc. are made', and which, not only as an umbraculiferous, but also as a sacred tree, is held in high esteem in Africa. Kotschy, speaking of the kingdom of Nubia, says : " On moonlight nights the negroes celebrate their religious festivals under this tree and the Boswellia serrata, Roxb. As soon as the moon rises, they form circles under the oldest trees, and begin to dance, sing, and beat large drums, whilst the women supply them Avith the slightly intoxicating merisa (beer made of Sorghum). These festivals are repeated every month, and extend over several nights, during which time pitchers filled with merisa are placed around the trunks, and some of the same beverage poured on the roots of the trees. As symbols of special veneration, high poles made of Kigelia-wood are erected before the houses of the great chiefs '\" The genus Crescentia has a fruit with a hard woody shell, wliich in Crescentia Cujete, Linn. (=C. cuneifolia, Gardn.), the Calabash-tree of the British colonists, is so large and durable, that it admits of being converted into pails, bottles, pans, cups, sieves, ladles, spoons, and various other household articles \ In Panama I have seen milk-pans made of it, measui'ing thirteen inches across ; and Hum- boldt mentioned to me that during his travels in America, Bonpland and he commonly used one of these vessels as their wash-hand basin. Even the shell of Crescentia alata, H. B. K., the Teconiate of the Mexicans, though much smaller than that of Crescentia Cujete, Linn, is used in Mazatlan and other parts of Mexico as a drinking-cup \ The shell, or rather rind, of Kigelia pinnata, DeCand., after having been hardened by drying, serves as frames for drums in Africa ^ ; and it is not unUkely that the account given by the missionary Knoblecher, of the shell of a fruit found on the White Nile ^ and devoted to the same purpose, refers to it. The fruit of the Palo de velas, the famous Candle-tree of the Isthmus of Panama {Farmentiera cereifera, Seem.), has an apple-like smell, and fattens cattle ', whilst that of the Quauhilote [Farmentiera edulis, DeCand. = Crescentia aculeata, H. B. K.), resembling a cucumber in shape, is eaten by the Mexicans ^ The berry of Tanoscium lilacinum, Seem. (:=Fesleria ? violacea et ^. ?' ccerulea, Aubl.) is also edible ^ ; and the subacid pulp of the fruit of Crescentia Cujete, Linn, aifords food to the negroes'". Tussac believed that the fruit of Crescentia cucurbitina, Linn., a common sea-side shrub of tropical America, contained a deadly poison, and hence he

' Oswald, Mem. in Mus. Kew ; H. Earth in Bonpl. iv. p. 292. " Kotschy in Bonpl. iv. p. 304.

" Seemann, Bot. Herald, p. 183. * Seemann in Hooker's Journ. and Kew Misc. vi. p. 276.

' Barth in lit. ad auct. " Kotschy in Bonpl. iv. p. 304. ' Seemann, Bot. Herald, p. 183.

" DeCandolle, Prodromus, ix. p. 244; Lindley, Veg. Kingd. p. 674. ' Seemann, Bot. Herald, p. 182.

" Lindley, Veg. Kingd. p. 674.


thought it necessary to warn against it by changing the specific name of the plant into that of Crescentia letUfera. " I know myself," he says, " that some English soldiers in garrison at the Merebalis, who, having foimd the fruit possessed a cucumber-like taste, boiled and ate it, were seized with dreadful colic, and nearly all perished"". As this is the only instance of poisonous properties recorded of this order, the statement must be received with caution ; possibly some fruits of the Manchineel-tree, which generally grows in company with Crescentia cucurbitina, Linn., may have been mixed with those alluded to, and caused the accident. Colea Telfairice, Boj. is extensively cultivated in Madagascar on account of its fleshy fruit, which has an agreeable flavour, and is highly esteemed as an esculent '^ Phyllarthron Bojericmum, DeCand. also yields an edible fruit '^ The natives of Guiana extract a violet colour from the fruit of " Emosse bereoy " {Tanceclmn lilacimmi. Seem.), with which they dye their cotton cloth, their bark and straw furniture ". The juice of the fruit of the common Calabash-tree dyes silk black '■\ The fruit of the " Coco de Mono " of Topo, Venezuela {Crescentia cucurbitina, Linn.), diffuses, when ripe, an agreeable odour, which attracts monkeys, birds, and other animals partial to the fruit '^ The medi- cinal properties of some species are in repute among the natives of various countries, though they have not yet been recognized in our pharmacopoeias. The Philippine Islanders consider a decoction of the leaves of Crescentia alata, H. B. K. (= C. trifolia, Blanco) an effectual remedy for haemoptysis '". The pulp of the fruit of the same species, boiled with sugar, is administered internally by the Mexicans in complaints of the chest (con- sumption ?)'^ and haK a drachm of the root oi Farmentiera eclulis, DeCand., to one pound of water, is considered by them as a remedy for dropsy '". Purgative properties reside in the pulp of Klgelia pinnata, DeCand., of which the Africans avail themselves-"; they are also found in the juice of Crescentia Cnjete, Linn., obtained in Panama by incision of the fruit ^'. The pulp of the fruit of the last-named tree is also used internally in Mexico in inflammatory and bilious diseases -", and employed, like that of TancBcimn albiflorum, DeCand. ", in various countries as poultices. With the fruit of Kigelia pinnata, DeCand. cut in halves, and slightly roasted, the nations of North-eastern Africa rub their skin, as a cure for rheumatic and syphilitic complaints'-''. Its aphrodisiacal properties are also confirmed by A. Richard ".

Class-ijicatioii. I have di^dded Crescentiacece into two tribes, the one having a regular, the other an irregular calyx. I retain for them DeCandolle's names {Tanceciece and Crescentiece) and their typical genera, but reject his characters and remove Parmentiera from Tanceciece to Crescentiece, and Tripinnaria from Crescentiece to Tanceciece. No new genera are created ; but two {Schlegelia and Tripinnaria) suppressed, they having proved

" Tussac, Fl. des Antilles, iv. p. 51. '= Hooker, Bot. Mag. (1830) t. 2976.

'^ Bojer, Mem. in Herb. Vindob. " Aublet, Guiana, ii. p. 631. '" Seemann, Bot. Herald, p. 183.

"^ W. Birschell, Mem. in Herb. Hook. ; Bonpl. v. p. 44. " M. Blanco, Fl. de Filipinas, p. 490 (1st edit.).

" Seemann in Hook. Journ. and Kew Misc. vi. p. 276. " Heller, Reisen in Mexiko, p. 4)4.

^" Eduard Vogel, Mem. in Herb. Hook. ; Bonplaudia, v. p. 44. -' Seemann, Bot. Herald, p. 183.

" Heller, Reisen in Mexiko, p. 414. -' Lindley, Veg. Kingd. p. 674 ; Heller, Reisen in Mexiko, p. 414.

■'* Kotschy in Bonplandia, iv. p. 304. -' A. Richard, Flora Abyssinica, ii. p. 60.


identical with TcmcBcmm and Colea ; whilst Periblema, DeCand., on account of its bilocnlar ovary and definite number of oviiles, is altogether excluded from the order.

Diagnosis Genertim. Tribus I. Tan^cie^. Calyx persistens, regularis, 5-merus.

1. Colea, Boj. Calyx obsolete 5-dentatus vel 5-partitus, ecostatus. Fnictus carnosus, cylindraccua,

spurie 2-locularis. Folia opposlta vel verticillata, imparipinnata. Africa et Asia tropica.

2. Phijllarthi-on,'DeCand. Calyx 5-dentatus, 5-angulato-costatus. Fmctus carnosus, cylindraceus, spurie

plurilocularis. Folia verticillata vel sparsa, lomentacea. Africa tropica.

3. Tanmcium, Swartz. Calyx obsolete 5-dentatus, ecostatus. Fructus carnosus, oblongus vel globosus,

1- vel spurie 2-locularis. Folia opposita, simplicia vel trifoliolata. America tropica. Tribus II. Crescentie^. Calyx deciduus, irregularis (spathaceus vel bipartitus).

4. Parmew^iera, DeCand. Calyx spathaceus. Fructus carnosus, cylindraceus, epulposus. Folia opposita,

trifoliolata vel simplicia. America tropica.

5. Crescentia, Linn. Calyx bilabiatus, lobis integerrimis. Fructus lignosus, rotundatus vel oblongus,

pulposus. Folia sparsa vel fasciculata, simplicia vel trifoliolata. America tropica.

6. Kigelia, DeCand. Calyx bilabiatus, lobis irregulariter fissis. Fructus corticatus, ellipsoides seu

cylindraceus. Folia opposita, imparipinnata. Afi-ica tropica.

Tribus I. Tan.e€ie.e. Seem, in Proc. Linn. Soc. ii. p. 269 (1853) ; Bot. Herald, p. 182 (185-1). Calyx persistens, regularis, 5-merus.

1. Colea, Bojer.

Calyx persistens, subcampanulatus, obsolete 5-dentatus, vel 5-partitus. Co7'olla infundibuliformis, tubo oblongo supra paulum ampliato, limbo 5-fido subaequali, lobis rotundatis patentibus. Stamina 4, didynama, cum rudimento quinti; antherce bi- (vel abortu uni-) loculares, loculis discretis. Discus glandulosus obsolete 5-lobus, ovarii basin cingens. Stylus elongatus ; stigma bilamellatum. Ovarium uniloculare, multioviilatum, placentis parietalibus. Ovula anatropa. Bacca oblonga cylindraceave, styli-apiculata, spurie 2-locularis. Semina exalbuminosa, imbricata, irregulariter ovata, crassiuscula. Cotyledones plano-convexse apice emarginatae ; radiciila brevissima.

Frutices, arbusculce vel arbores Africa et Asice trojncce, ssepius glabrae, foliis verticillatis vel oppositis, imparipinnatis (abortu simplicibus), foliolis integerrimis, floribus racemosis vel paniculatis, termi- nalibus vel ex trunco ramisque ortis, flavidis, roseis vel albidis.

Colea, Boj. Hort. Maurit. p. 220 (18.37) ; Endl. Gen. Plant. Suppl. i. n. 4171/„ (1840) ; DeCand. Prodr. ix. p. 240 (1845).

Bignoniae sp., auct.

Tripinna, Lour. Fl. Cochin, (ed. Ulyssip.), p. 391 (17S0).

Tripinnaria, Pers. Ench. ii. p. 173 (1807) ; Endl. Gen. PI. n. 4173 (1836-40).

Tripinna iripinnata, Lom\ {= Tripinnaria CocUinchinensis, Pers.), has always been numbered among the doubtful genera; and unfortunately there are no specimens of it among Lom^eiro's plants preserved at Paris and London. But I do tliink that in all essential points it agrees with Colea, and may appropriately take its place near Colea TelfairicB, Boj., with which it corresponds in its arboreous habit, terminal panicles, and undulated lobes of the corolla. Loureiro does not state in his description whether his plant has opposite leaves ; but if the systematic position now assigned to it be correct, there is reason to believe tliat, like all other Coleas with terminal flowers, the leaves are opposite. Having thus united the genera Colea and Tripinna, the necessity of adopting


the oldest name ( Tripinna) would seem forced upon me ; but in yielding to tMs I should be obliged to disturb a whole series of well-established names ; and that I cannot bring myself to do as long as no specimens of Loureiro's doubtful plant have been examined. There is another reason which prompts me to pause. The habit of all Coleas with opposite leaves and terminal flowers is very different from that of the Coleas with verticillate leaves and flowers growing out of the old wood, rendering it probable that these differ- ences may be accompanied by important generic distinctions, which, when the flowers and fruit of all the species shall have become better known, may justify a breaking up of Colea into at least two distinct genera. Loiu'eiro's Tripinna might then be restored, and the name of Colea be restricted to Colea Mauritiana and its allies. Even now it will aid us in the classification, if we divide the genus sectionally into Colece gemiince and Tripinna. I have added four new species, three of which were discovered by recent travellers, whilst one (C. JBojeri) had been misplaced under Bignonia. This will in some measure com- pensate for the reduction of species it has been necessary to make. Colea ramijlora, DeCand. and C. ohhisifolia, DeCand. have been united with C. Ilauritiana, Boj., there being no specific distinction between them. C.floribunda, Boj., like all Coleas established by Bojer, proves a good species, of which C. canlijlora, DeOand. and C. ? Commersonu are undoubtedly synonyms. C. purpu7^ascens. Seem, seems a very distinct species : I must, however, own that I entertain doubts whether it may not fall, together with C. Bojeri {Bignonia Bojeri, DeCand.), of which I have seen no specimens, and which is btit imper- fectly described. C. Seychellarum, Seem, and C. Mspidissima, Seem, are founded upon very distinctive characters, and will probably stand. C. telragona, DeCand. is also a good species, the branches of which are, however, apt to have more than four sides. C. decora is perhaps the most variable species, the leaves being simple, trifoliated, and imparipinnate, whilst the flowers (normally placed in simple racemes) are often quite isolated on a bracteate rachis. Owing to this extreme variation, the species has seldom been recognized, and a host (jf synonyms has been the consequence. Colea nitida, DeCand., C. Chapelieri, DeCand., Bignonia racemosa, Lam., and B. compressa, Lam., are the names iinder which it appears in our systematic works. C. Telfairice, Boj. and C. involucrata, Boj. are also good species, to the latter of which Bignonia bracteosa, DeCand. must be added as a synonym.

§ I. Folia verticillata. Flores e trunco ramisque orii (Colese genuine).

1. Colea FLOMBTTNDA ; arbuscula; ramis obtuse angulatis glabris, foliis 4-5-no-verticil- latis 5-8-jugis cum imparl, foliolis petiolulatis elliptico-oblongis vel oblongo-lanceo- latis acuminatis, utrinque glabris, racemis e caule ramisque ortis, calyce glabro, corolla (lutea) extus velutino-scabrida, intus villosa, staminibus ovario stylo fructuqu.e elongato cylindraceo subtoruloso glabris. (v. v. cult, et sp. s.)

Colea floribunda, Bojer, Hort. Maurit. p. 220 (1837) ; Lindl. Bot. Reg. 1841, t. 19; DeCand. Prodr. ix.

p. 241, n. 3 (1845). Colea} Commersonii, DeCand. Prodr. ix. p. 242, n. 11 (1845). Colea cauliflora, DeCand. Prodr. ix. p. 241, n. 3 (1845). Bignonia cauliflora, Sie.b. Fl. Maurit. exsic. ii. n. 284. Nomen vernaculum Madagascariense : " Rei-rei,"


Geogr. Distr. Common throughout Madagascar [Commerson ! in Herb. Par., et Juss. ! Boje?- !) ; Mau- ritius [Sieber ! in Herb. Vindob.). This is the only species of Colea as yet cultivated in our gardens. It is better known than aU the others ; and we are therefore enabled to settle its synonymy with tolerable accuracy. I have seen, at Paris, Commerson' s specimens upon which DeCandoUe founded his Colea ? CommersonU, and consider them to be in every respect identical with C. flori- bimda. Why DeCandolle placed C. CommersonU among the species with terminal flowers is diificult to say, since some of the specimens prove that the racemes grow out of the old wood. Sieber's n. 284 from Mauritius, upon which DeCandolle founded his C. cauli- flora, I have examined in the Vienna Herbarium, and I find that it cannot be specifically separated from C. Jloribimda.

2. Colea Setchellarum ; arbuscula; ramis angulatis giabris, foliis 3- 4i-nove verticillatis

4-5-jugis cum imparl, foliolis petiolulatis obovato-oblongis obtusis, basi attenuatis, coriaceis utrinque giabris, racemis elongatis e caule ramisque ortis, calyce glabro, coroUa extus glabra, intus villoso-pubescente, ovario styloque glabro, fructu .... (v. sp. s.) Colea Seychellarum, Seem. MSS. in Herb. Paris. Geogr. Distr. Isle of Mahe {Bernier\, n. 38).

This new species has the habit of Colea jloribunda, Boj. It is, according to Bernier, from 20-25 feet high. Leaves 1-1| foot long ; leaflets 4-5 inches long and 1^-2 inches broad. Racemes often 8 inches, and corolla about 1 inch long. At once distinguished from C. jloribunda by its very long racemes and its (outside) glabrous corolla.

3. Colea purpurascens ; . . . . , ramis angulatis pubescentibus, foliis 3-7-no verticil-

latis 7-10-jugis cum imparl, foliolis petiolulatis ovato-oblongis longe acuminatis basi attenuatis, petiolis, petiolulis nervisque inferioribus purpurascentibus, racemis abbre- viatis e caule ramisque ortis, calyce glabro, corolla extus velutino-scabrida, stylo superne viUoso, fructu .... (v. sp. s.) Colea jiurpurascens. Seem. MSS. in Herb. Paris. Geogr. Distr. Ste. Marie de Madagascar {Boivin\) ; Nossi-be (Boivin !).

Has the habit of Colea Jloribunda, but diifers in the pubescent branches, and pseudo- stipules, the pui'plish tinge of the petioles, petiolules, and veins of the under side of the leaflets, as vrell as in its villose style. It flowers, according to Boivin, from November to January.

4. Colea discolor ; fruticosa ; ramis (angulatis ?) apice hirsutis ; foliis (verticillatis ?)

7-jugis cum imparl, foHolis brevi-petiolulatis oblongo-lanceolatis obtuse acuminatis subtus purpureis, racemis e caule ramisque ortis, calyce . . . , coroUa . . . , ovario . . . , stylo . . . , fructu . . .

Colea discolor, Seem. MSS.

Bignonia discolor, Boj. in Ut. ad DeCand. 1833, non Rich.

Bignonia Bojeri, DeCand. Prodr. ix. p. 165 (1845).

Geogr. Distr. Madagascar, on Mount Antoungoun, prov. of Emirna [Bojer, teste DeCand.).


I have not seen specimens of this species ; and those seen by DeCandoUe were without flowers and fruit. My reasons for placing it among the genuine Coleas were twofold : Because no true Blgnonia has imparipinnate leaves with quite entire leaflets, nor flowers growing out of the old wood, as those of Colea discolor, according to Bojer, do : these three characters combined are only met with in Colea, and in no other Bignoniaceous or Crescentiaceous genus. As an additional reason, I may plead the close resemblance this species must bear to Colea ptirpiirascens, rendering a specific distinction difiicult. Both have hairy branches, leaves with 7 pairs, and leaflets more or less purplish underneath. Should a larger number of specimens come to hand, it may be found that there is no specific distinction between Colea imrpurascens and C. discolor.

5. Colea hispidissima ; fruticosa ?, ramis subteretibus glabris, foliis oppositis (v. verti-

cillatis ?) 4-5-jugis cum imparl, foliolis longe petiolulatis obovato-oblongis breviter acuminatis, racemis abbreviatis e caule ramisque ortis, calyce coroUaque extus pilis ferrugineis hispidissimis, corolla (alliida ?) intus ovario styloque hispidis, staminibus glabris, fructu .... (v. sp. s.)

Colea hispidissima, Seena. MSS.

Geogr. Distr. Ste. Marie, Madagascar {Boivin\ n. 1820 in Herb. Par.).

Differs from all known Coleas by its very hispid calyx and corolla. The leaves are probably, in the older branches, verticillate, as in all the other species of this group of the genus.

6. Colea Mauritlana; arborea; ramis angulatis glabris, foUis 3-4-nove verticillatis

2-3-jugis cum impari, foliolis subsessilibus obovato-cvxneatis obtusis vel acuminatis coriaceis, racemis e caule ramisque ortis, calyce glabro, corolla (rosea) glabra vel tenuissime puberula, staminibus ovario styloque glabris, fructu oblongo acuminate verrucoso glabro (flavescente), seminibus ovali-oblongis. (v. sp. s.)

Colea Mauritiana, Bojer, Hort. Maurit. p. 220 (1837) ; DeCand. Prodr. ix. p. 241, n. 1 (1845). Colea ramiflora, DeCand. Prodr. ix. p. 241 (1845). Bignonia Colei, Boj. MSS. ; Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 281? (1828). Blgnonia ramiflora, Decaisne, Nouv. Ann. Mus. Par. iii. p. 381. Colea obtusifolia, DeCand. Prodr. ix. p. 241 (1845).

Geogr. Distr. Madagascar {Chapelier\ Petit-Thoiiarsl Co7nmerson \) ; Mauritius (5o;"er !) ; Timor [Herb. Par.). A tree, according to Bojer's MSS. in the Viennese Herbarium, and having Colea tetra- gona for its nearest ally. The leaflets of Bojer's specimen from Mauritius are quite obtuse.

7. Colea tetragona; fruticosa; ramis acute 4-7-gonis, glabris, foliis 4-7-nove ver-

ticillatis 5-9-jugis cum impari, foliolis brevi petiolulatis oblongis obtusis basi in- sequalibus subcuneatis coriaceis, racemis e caule ramisque ortis abbreviatis, calyce glabro, corolla (rosea) extus puberula, ovario . . ., fructu ... (v. sp. s.)

Colea} telragona, DeCand. Prodr. ix. p. 242 (1845).

Geogr. Distr. Madagascar (Pe^i<-77<0Mars ! Pervillel n. 234).



According to Perville, who found tliis species at St. Marie, in the N.E. of Madagascar, it is a shrub 12-15 feet liigh, with rose-coloured flowers. The speciiic name " tetragona " does not apply well to this plant, since better specimens than those at DeCandolle's disposal show that the normal number of the leaves, and the consequent edges of the branches, is seven, and that only weak specimens have square branches. The hard, acute, persistent scales occasionally met with in this species, and regarded by Bojer as stipules, appear to me (as supposed by DeCandolle) to be abortive leaves, somewhat analogous to the scales on the trunk of Cycas.

§ II. Fulia opposita. Flores axillares vel terminales. (Tripinna, Lour.)

8. CoLEA DECORA ; fruticosa, glabra, ramis compressis, foliis oppositis 5-jugis cum impari,

trifoliolatis vel imo simplicibus, foliolis petiolulatis obovato-oblongis obtusis vel acu- minatis, basi subcuneatis, coriaceis, supra nitidis, petiolo angustissime marginato, racemis terminalibus vel asillaribus bracteatis, bracteis obovatis acutis vel obtusis basi cuneatis, pedunculis acute tetragonis, pedicellis solitariis vel 4-no verticillatis, calyce glabro, corolla (alba) staminibusque puberulis, ovario styloque glabris, fructu ... (v. sp. s.)

Colea decora, Bojer, Hort. Mauvit. p. 220 (1837) ; DeCand. Prodr. ix. p. 241. n. 8. (1845).

Coleal Chapelieri, DeCand. Prodr. ix. p. 242 (1845).

Colea} nitida, DeCand. Prodr. ix. p. 242 (1845).

Bignonia compressa, Lam. Diet. i. p. 424 (1783).

Bignonia racemosa, Lam. Diet. i. p. 424 (1783) ; DeCand. Prodr. ix. p. 166. n. 139 (1845).

Geogr.Distr. Madagascar (iJoJe?- ! Goudotl Commerson\ Chapelier\ Petit-Thouars\ Boivinl). Goudot col- lected it near Tamatave, and Boivin at Ste. Marie. Easily distinguished from Colea tetragona, its nearest ally, by its opposite, never verti-

cillate leaves, and from all other Coleas by its racemes clothed with foliaceous bracts.

By its bracts it approaches Colea involucrata, Boj. It is necessary to add, that Bojer

distributed specimens of Colea floribiinda, Boj. under the name of Bignonia decora,

which has given rise to some confusion, leading in some herbaria to the error of attaching

the name of Colea decora to the wrong plant.

9. Colea involucrata ; fruticosa ; ramis teretibus glabris, foliis oppositis 3-G-jugis cum

impari, foliolis petiolulatis ellipticis obtuse acuminatis, basi cuneatis, supra nitidis, racemis abbreviatis (subcymosis) longe peduuculatis, 3-5-floris, bracteis 4 late obo- vatis vel suborbiculatis cinctis, calyce glabro, dentibus obtusis, corolla (rubro-aurantia, marguie flavo-aurantio) limbo patente obtuse 5-lobo, extus intusque glabra, stami- nibus ovario styloque glabris, fructu (v. sp. s.)

Colea involucrata, Bojer, Hort. Maurit. p. 221 (1837); DeCand. Prodr. ix. p. 242 (1845). Bignonia bracteosa, DeCand. Prodr. ix. p. 165 (1845). Nomen vernaculum : " Slfin-souki-mena-felan," teste Bojer. Geogr. Distr. Madagascar {Bojer \ in Herb. Par. et Hook.).

The fruit of this species, though unknown to both DeCandoUe and myself, was pro- bably seen by Bojer, and induced him to place the plant with his genus Colea, in which


DeCandolle followed him ; but, probably by some oversight, the celebrated author of the ' Prodromus ' enumerated it a second time in his great work as Bignonia bracteosa, with which genus (if the fruit be fleshy) it can have nothing to do. The imparipinnate leaves with quite entire leaflets are also a feature not met with in any genuine species of Bignonia.

10. CoLEA Telfaiui^ ; arborea ; ramis subcompressis, minutissime pubescentibus viscosis ; foliis oppositis 6~9-jugis cum imparl, foliolis ovato-oblongis acuminatis lucidis, pani- culis terminalibus laxis, calycis dentibus puberulis longiusculis acutis, corolla (rosea, tubo ad faucem flavo fasciato) extus minute puberula, intus subglabra, lobis crenatis, staminibus ovario styloque glabris, fructu longius cylindraceo acuminato carnoso sublsevi. (v. sp. s.)

Colea Telfairice, Bojer, Hort. Maurit. p. 220 (1837) ; DeCand. Prodr. ix. p. 242. n. 10. (1845).

Bignonia Telfairice, Boj. MSS., in Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 2976 exclud. fig. 2 (1830).

Geogr. Distr. Province of Emirna, Madagascar (Bojer !), where it is also cultivated on account of its edible

fruit. Nomen vernaculum Madagascariense : teste Bojer, " Vouen-Kici-Kicika."

11. Colea tripinnata ; arborea ; ramis patentibus, foliis (oppositis ?) 3-jugis cum imparl, foliolis (petiolulatis ?) ovatis acuminatis glabris, paniculis terminalibus, calyce cyathi- formi 5-crenato, corolla (luteo-rubra) subcampanulata, laciniis ovatis undulatis villosis, ovario subrotundo styloque . . . ., fructu ovato, seminibus oblongis compressis.

Colea tripinnata, Seem, in Bonplandia, iv. p. 128 (1856); Hook. Journ. of Bot. and Kew Misc. ix. p. 84

(1857). Tripinna tripinnata, Lour. Fl. Cochinch. (ed. Ulyssipol.) p. 391 (1790). Tripinnaria Asiatica, Sprengl. Syst. ii. p. 842 (1822).

Tripinnaria Cochinchinensis, Pers. Ench-. ii. p. 173 (1807); DeCand. Prodr. ix. p. 248 (1845). Tanacium tripinna, Raeusch, ex Steudl. Nomen. Bot. p. 712 (1841). Nomen vernaculum Cochinchinense : " A Cay Den." Geogr. Distr. Cochinchina (teste Loureiro).

As there are no specimens of this plant in Europe to supply the deficiencies of Lou- reiro's character, it may not be superfluous to add here all that the ' Hora Cochinchi- nensis ' contains about it :■ " Cal. Perianthium cyathiforme, 5-crenatum, persistens. Cor. monopetala, subcampanulata, patens ; tubo calycem superante, limbo 5-fldo ; laciniis ovatis undulatis, villosis, summa majore. Stam. FUamenta 4 (quorum duo longiora) coroUae subsequalia. Antheroi bicornes, incumbentes. Fist. Germen subrotundum. Stylus soqualis staminibus. Stigma acutum, bifidum. Feric. Bacca ovata, carnosa, 1-locularis, polysperma. Sem. oblonga, compressa, pauca*. Nom. Tripinnam voeavi a foliis tripinnatis. Tripinna tripinnata ; fohis 3-pinnatis, foliolis ovatis acuminatis ; racemis terminalibus. Hab. Arbor magna, ramis patentibus. Folia tripinnata t cum imparl

* "pauca" is probably a misprint for "parva," as just before the berry is termed " POLYspermous" by Loureiro, and as the seeds of all Coleas are small. B. S.

f The term "tripinnata" here employed I take to mean "3-juga." B. S.



maiove, foliolis ovatis acuminatis, integerrimis, glabris. Flos liiteo-ruber, corymbis race- mosis terminalibus. Habitat in sylvis montanis, Codiincbinse."

2. Phtllarthron, DeCand.

Calya; persistens, 5-angulatus, 5-dentatus. Corolla infuadibuliformis, tubo oblongo supra paulum ampllato,

limbo 5-fido subjequali, lobis rotundatis patentibus. Stamina 4, didynama, cum rudimento quinti ;

anthercB biloculares, loculis discretis. Discus glandulosus obsolete 5-lobus, ovarii basin cingens.

Stylus elongatus, stigma bilamellatum. Ovarium uniloculare, multiovulatum, placentis parietalibus.

Ovula anatropa. Bacca cylindracea, spurie plurilocularis. Semina exalbuminosa, subrotunda. Arbores vel frutices ex insulis Africa austr alls orta;, ramis dichotomis compressis vel angulatis, foliis oppo-

sitis verticillatis vel sparsis, lomentaceis (nempe petiole aiticulato articulis 2-5 late foliaceis), foliolis

nuUis (v. in sp. dubio paucis), racemis terminalibus vel axillaribus paucifloris, floribus roseis, fruc-

tibus flavis. Phyllarthron, DeCand. Prodr. ix. p. 243; Endl. Gen. Plant. Suppl. ii. p. 65. n. 4171/,. Arthroi^liyllum, Bojer, Hort. Maurit. p. 221 ; DeCand. Kev. Bign. p. 18, non Blum. Bignonixe sp., auct.

The number of species here enumerated is the same as that of DeCandoUe's ' Prodro- mus,' one of DeCandoUe's species {Fh. Foivrecmum, DeCand.) having been suppressed, and a new one {Fh. Fernencmum, Seem.) added. Fh. Thouarsiauum, DeCand. will pro- bably have to be excluded from this genus, its habit being entirely different from that of the genuine Phyllarthrons.

1. Phyllarthron Noronhianum ; fruticosa, ramis angulatis, saepe trigonis, foHis 3-4-

nove verticillatis vel sparsis, petiolis articulatis, articulis 2-3 ample foliaceo-margi- natis late obovatis basi cuneatis, supra lucidis subtus eveniis vel venis impressis, coriaceis, foliolis nuUis, racemis terminalibus, pedunciilis compressis, calyce cylin- draceo 5-nervio obtuse 5-deutato, corolla . . . ., staminibus . . . ., ovario styloque . . . ., fructu .... (v. sp. s.)

Phyllarthron Noronhianum, DeCand. Prodr. ix. p. 243. n. 1 (1845).

Bignonia articulata, Desf. in Poiv. Suppl. i. p. 636 ?

Geogr.Distr. Madagascar {Boivinl Petit-Thouars \ Poivrel in Herb. Par.).

2. Phyllarthron Bojerianum ; arborea ; ramis ancipitibus petioHsque junioribus vis-

cosis ; foliis oppositis, petiolis articulatis, articulis 2 late marginatis, inferiorc obovato- cuneato, super, elliptico, utroque pinnatim venoso, foliolis nuUis ; racemis termina- libus subcorymboso-trichotomis, pedunculis compressis, calyce ovato-campanulato enervio subtruncato obtuse 5-dentato, corolla (rosea) extus pulverulento-velutina,

lobis 5 latis obtusissimis, staminibus , ovario styloque glabris, fructu

(v. sp. s. et cult.)

Phyllarthron Bojerianum, DeCand. Prodr. ix. p. 243. n. 3 (1845) ; Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 4173 (1845) ; Van

Houtte, Fl. des Ser. ii. t. 7 (Mars 1846). Arthrophyllum Madagascariense, B